Cuneiform Texts and Fragments in the Harvard Art Museum / Arthur M. Sackler Museum

CDLJ 2010:1

Cuneiform Digital Library Journal (ISSN: 1540-8779)

Published on 2010-07-06

© Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License except when noted otherwise and in the case of artifact images which follow the CDLI terms of use.

Cuneiform, Ur III, Old Assyrian, Old Babylonian


§0. Acknowledgements
The initial work for this project was undertaken during the spring of 2009 as part of an Agnes Mongan Curatorial Internship with the Harvard Art Museum. I must express my considerable gratitude to Susanne Ebbinghaus, Curator of Ancient Art at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, for suggesting and enabling this project, as well as Amy Brauer and Karen Manning, whose help throughout my internship was invaluable. I am also very much indebted to Klaas Veenhof, who kindly took the time to read a draft of the Old Assyrian text editions and whose comments and suggestions have greatly improved this manuscript. Thanks are also due to Xiaoli Ouyang and Benjamin Studevent-Hickman for their comments on the Ur III tablets.


§1. Introduction
§1.1. The Harvard Art Museum/ Arthur M. Sackler Museum houses a small cuneiform collection of twenty-one texts and fragments, including two royal foundation inscriptions from the Early Dynastic and Old Babylonian periods, economic texts from the Ur III period, one Old Babylonian land sale document and one fragment of a Hittite ritual text. The majority of the collection is composed of letters and legal texts dealing with the trade of the Old Assyrian period.


§1.2. Most of the objects were gifts to the museum; their history prior to that is uncertain. Donors included Catherine W. Pierce (1938.94 [§4.3]) and Mrs. W. Stewart Hamaker (1963.108 [§5.1]). The group of mostly Old Assyrian tablets acquired in 1983 [1983.97-1983.109; §4.1, §5.2, §6.1, §6.2, §6.3, §6.4, §6.5, §6.6, §6.7, §6.8, §6.9, §6.10, §6.11] had been in the possession of the antiquarian and dealer Charles D. Kelekian before they were given to the museum by his daughter Nanette Rodney Kelekian. An Old Assyrian and a Hittite text came to the museum from the collection of Louise M. Bates and George E. Bates (1992.256.6 [§7.1]; 1992.256.7 [§6.12]). George E. Bates, a professor of investment management at Harvard University, was also a senior adviser to the University of Istanbul, Turkey, and to the Tunisian government. He built a sizeable collection of Anatolian, Syrian, and Near Eastern artifacts.


§1.3. Two more Old Assyrian texts (2000.196 [§6.13] and 2000.197) were formerly in the Hans Silvius von Aulock collection and were sold to the museum through Christie’s, New York on June 13, 2000 (lot no. 556). The seal impressions on both these objects have been published previously, as nos. 334 and 335 respectively, in Hans Henning van der Osten, Altorientalische Siegelsteine der Sammlung Hans Silvius von Aulock (1957). The foundation nail of Enmetena (2000.274 [§3.1]) was given by Jerome Eisenberg. It was one of fifteen foundation nails from a Canadian private collection assembled during the earlier 20th century, sold at Sotheby’s, New York on June 14, 2000.


§1.4. Only one of the Ur III texts (1953.110 [§4.2]), which came to the museum after being in the possession of Edgar J. Banks, is specifically noted as a “Jokha tablet”, suggesting that Banks acquired it at Tell Jokha (ancient Umma).


§1.5. The edition and copy of the fragment of the Hittite ritual text, 1992.256.6 [§7.1], is provided by Daniel Schwemer. The text of the Old Assyrian tablet 2000.197 [§6.14] is currently being edited by Thomas Sturm (Münster), and will be published by him in a forthcoming article. This manuscript therefore provides editions of twenty of the twenty-one cuneiform texts accessioned by the Harvard Art Museum. The texts are presented in chronological order.


§2. Catalogue of HAM tablets

no. date contents provenience dimensions (mm) HAM no.
3.1 ED IIIb: Enmetena Foundation nail commemorating building of temple Bad-Tibira? l: 240; dia. of head: 58 2000.274
4.1 Ur III: Šulgi 37 ix Sealed envelope: receipt of bitumen Umma? 55 × 44 × 28 1983.108
4.2 Ur III: Šulgi 44 iii Receipt of flour Umma 37 × 36 × 13 1953.110
4.3 Ur III: Ibbi-Suen 1 ix Receipt of reeds for fodder Umma 45 × 43 × 16 1938.94
5.1 OB: Sîn-kāšid Foundation cone commemorating building of palace Uruk? l: 60; dia. of base: 38 1963.108
5.2 OB: Samsuiluna 7 Sale of a plot of land for a house ? 75 × 53 × 33 1983.107
6.1 Old Assyrian waklum-letter to kārum Kaneš Kaneš? 52 × 61 × 22 1983.97
6.2 Old Assyrian Caravan account: textiles Kaneš? 40 × 42 × 16 1983.98
6.3 Old Assyrian Deposit of silver Kaneš? 27 × 33 × 13 1983.99
6.4 Old Assyrian Caravan account: textiles Kaneš? 48 × 45 × 17 1983.100
6.5 Old Assyrian Letter from Puzur-Ištar to Aššur-ţāb Kaneš? 48 × 48 × 10 1983.101
6.6 Old Assyrian Letter from Waqqurtum to Puzur?-Aššur Kaneš? 60 × 34 × 09 1983.102
6.7 Old Assyrian Letter? Kaneš? 19 × 48 × 15 1983.103
6.8 Old Assyrian Consignment of antimony Kaneš? 30 × 28 × 12 1983.104
6.9 Old Assyrian Deposit of silver Kaneš? 26 × 40 × 13 1983.105
6.10 Old Assyrian Uninscribed fragment of envelope with seal impression Kaneš? 37 × 43 × 10 1983.106
6.11 Old Assyrian Debt of silver Kaneš? 36 × 41 × 15 1983.109
6.12 Old Assyrian Loan of silver Kaneš? 37 × 39 × 14 1992.256.7
6.13 Old Assyrian Fragment of envelope with two different seal impressions Kaneš? 45 × 32 × 17 2000.196
6.14 Old Assyrian Letter from Aššur-lamassī to Šū-Bēlum Kaneš? tablet: 49 x 47 x 16; env.: 55 x 55 x 30 2000.197
7.1 Hittite (13th cent. BC) Ritual text Bogazköy? 60 x 52 x 14 1992.256.6


§3. ED IIIb Period text
§3.1. Foundation nail of Enmetena
Museum No.: 2000.274
Date: Enmetena; c. 2400 BC
Provenience: Bad-Tibira (?)



i 1. dinanna-ra For Inanna
  2. dlugal-e2-muš3-ra and Lugal-emuš,
  3. en-mete-na Enmetena,
  4. ensi2 ruler
  5. lagaški-ke4 of Lagaš,
  6. e2-muš3 e2 ki-ag2-ga2-ne-ne the E-muš, their beloved temple,
  7. mu-ne-du3 built
  8. KIBgunû mu-na-du11 and ordered (these) clay nails for them.
  9. en-mete-na Enmetena,
  10. lu2 e2-muš3 du3-a who built the E-muš,
ii 1. dingir-ra-ni his personal god
  2. dšul-utul12-am6 is Šul-utul.
  3. u4-ba en-mete-na At that time, Enmetena,
  4. ensi2 ruler
  5. lagaški of Lagaš,
  6. lugal-ki-ne2-eš2-du7-du7 and Lugal-kineš-dudu,
  7. ensi2 ruler
  8. unuki-bi of Uruk,
  19. nam-šeš e-ak established brotherhood.


§3.1.2. This clay nail or cone inscription is well-known from other examples and commemorates the building of the E-muš temple of Dumuzi in Bad-Tibira (modern: Tell al-Mada’in). The final seven lines also record the treaty between Enmetena and Lugal-kineš-dudu. For the publication of this inscription, see RIME 1 Enmetena 3 (E1.9.5.3). While Frayne interprets muš3 as “radiance” (Akkadian zīmu), translating the full name of the temple as “House – Radiance of the Land,” (e2-muš3-kalam-ma), this is unlikely. The term muš3 is well attested in connection with temples and seems to denote the “precinct,” (Akkadian mātu) the general area of the complex in which the temple of the god was erected (see Heimpel 1972: 286-287; for most attestations of muš3, see Sjöberg & Bergmann 1969: 54-56).


§4. Ur III Texts
§4.1. Receipt of bitumen
Museum No.: 1983.108
Date: Šulgi 37 ix
Provenience: Umma (?)



obv. 1. 1(u) esir2 had2 gur lugal 10 royal gur of dried bitumen
    seal impressions
  2. mu ma2 gibil-še3 for the new boat
  3. ki ensi2 ummaki-ta from the governor of Umma;
  4. kišib3 en-dingir-mu seal of En-dingir-mu,
  5. giri3 a-mur-dsuen lu2-kas4 via Amur-Suen, the runner,
    seal impressions
  6. u3 šeš-a-ni ˹lu2?˺ x and Šeš-ani, the ... .
rev. 7. iti ezem-mah Month: “Ezem-mah,”
  8. mu bad3 ma-da ba-du3 year: “the wall of the land was built.”
i 1. dšul-gi Šulgi,
  2. nita kal-ga mighty man,
  3. lugal uri5ki-ma king of Ur,
  4. lugal an-ub-da-limmu-ba king of the four quarters,
ii 1. en-dingir-mu En-dingir-mu,
  2. ra2-gaba the courier,
  3. ARAD2-zu your servant.


§4.1.2. This text is inscribed on an unbroken clay envelope with multiple impressions of the same seal across most of the surface. The text on the envelope is provided here and records the receipt of dried bitumen for a new boat. The seal of En-dingir-mu may be found on two other texts from Umma (Nik 2, 435 and Umma 93) both dating to the 34th year of Šulgi’s reign and both, like this text, dealing with the receipt of goods from the governor of Umma. The provenience of this text is based on analogy with the other texts bearing En-dingir-mu’s seal. It should be assumed that the month name, “ezem-mah”, usually associated with Drehem or Ur, is from the Reichskalendar.

obv. 6: The final two signs in this line presumably denote the profession of Šeš-ani. The traces resemble ašgab, or maybe lu2, and na. It is unclear whether there may be another sign in between these two.


§4.2. Receipt of barley flour
Museum No.: 1953.110
Date: Šulgi 44 iii
Provenience: Umma



obv. 1. 2(barig) dabin 2 (barig) of barley flour
  2. ki lugal-nir-gal2-ta (received) from Lugal-nirgal.
  3. kišib3 a-ra2-mu Seal of Aramu.
  4. iti še-kara-gal2-la Month: “Še-kara-gala,”
rev. 5. mu lu-lu-bum2 si-mu-ru-um ba-hul year: Lullubum (and) Simurrum were destroyed.
seal 1. ur-dsuen Ur-Suen,
  2. dub-sar the scribe,
  3. dumu ur-gigir son of Ur-gigir.


§4.2.2. Whole, unbroken Ur III administrative tablet with multiple impressions of the same seal across its surface. The text is a standard receipt for barley flour, but it should be noted that the name on the seal impression differs from the name of the owner of the seal given in the text. For other examples sealed by Aramu with this seal inscription, see: SAT 3, 1534; SAT 3, 1318; AUB cat 01.


§4.3. Receipt of reeds
Museum No.: 1938.94
Date: Ibbi-Suen 1 ix
Provenience: Umma



obv. 1. 1(geš2) 3(u) sa gi zi 90 bundles of fresh reeds,
  2. gu-kilib-ba 5(diš) sa-ta in each bale 5 bundles;
  3. ša3-gal udu niga sa2-du11 fodder for the regular offering fattened sheep,
  4. ki ur-e2-mah-ta (received) from Ur-Emah.
rev. 1. kišib3 a-lu5-lu5 Seal of Alulu.
    seal impression
  2. iti dli9-si4 Month: “Lisi,”
  3. mu di-bi2-dsuen lugal year: Ibbi-Suen (became) king.
seal 1. a-lu5-lu5 Alulu,
  2. dumu inim-dšara2 son of Inim-Šara,
  3. kurušda dšara2-ka animal fattener of the god Šara.


§4.3.2. Whole, unbroken Ur III administrative tablet with multiple impressions of the same seal across the surface. For other examples of Alulu receiving reeds from Ur-Emah in the same month, see MVN 13, 152; SAT 3, 1917, 1925. For the following month, Ibbi-Suen 1/x, see: MVN 13, 147-151, 153; YOS 4, 80; AR RIM 4, 34; SAT 3, 1921; Ontario 2, 378. For a detailed discussion of Alulu’s activities see more recently Widell 2009, §3.


§5. Old Babylonian Texts
§5.1. Foundation cone of Sîn-kāšid
Museum No.: 1963.108
Date: Sîn-kāšid; c. 1865-1833 BC
Provenience: Uruk (?)



i 1. dsuen-ka3-ši-id Sîn-kāšid,
  2. nita kal-ga mighty man
  3. lugal unuki-ga king of Uruk,
  4. lugal am-na-nu-um king of the Amnanum,
  5. u2-a e2-an-˹na˺ provider for the Eanna,
  6. u4 e2-an-na when the Eanna
  7. mu-du3-a he built,
  8. e2-gal his palace
  9. nam-lugal-la-ka-ni of royalty
  10. mu-du3 he built.


§5.1.2. This is another example of a well-known inscription of Sîn-kāšid, commemorating the building of his palace and the building of the Eanna temple. For the publication of this inscription see RIME 4, Sîn-kāšid 4 (E4.4.1.4.).


§5.2. Sale of house-plot
Museum No.: 1983.107
Date: Samsuiluna 7 xii
Provenience: unknown



obv. 1. igi 6(diš)-gal2 sar e2 ki šub-ba 1/6 sar (ca. 6m2) of house in disrepair,
  2. da ˹e2?˺ i3-li2-am-ta-ha-ar next to the house of Ilī-amtahar,
  3. e2 duraš-lu2-ti x x x the house of Uraš-awīlam-uballi? ...,
  4. ki duraš-lu2-ti from Uraš-awīlam-uballi?,
  5. lugal ˹e2-ke4˺ the owner of the house,
  6. Ii3-li2-am-ta-ha-ar Ilī-amtahar
  7. in-ši-sa10 bought.
  8. 5/6(diš) gin2 ku3-babbar 5/6 of a shekel of silver,
  9. sa10 til-la-bi-˹še3˺ its full price,
  10. ˹in˺-na-an-la2 he weighed out.
  11. [li]-˹ba˺-am [u2]-˹ṭi˺-[ib] He fully satisfied (him).
  12. geš˹gan-na ib-ta˺-[bala] He “stepped over the pestle.”
rev. 1. mu sa-am-su-i-˹lu˺-[na] By the name of Samsuiluna
  2. in-pa3 he swore.
  3. igi nu-ur2-dsuen Before Nūr-Sîn,
  4. dumu šu-bu-ul-˹tim˺ son of Šubultum;
  5. Ii-bi-ia du? um? Ibiya ...;
  6. Ia-˹li˺-dutu x Ali-Šamaš [...];
  7. I[x]-ma-ba?-x-x [x]-maba-[...].
  8. iti še-KIN-ku5 u4 1(u) 2(diš)-kam Month: Addarum, 12th day;
  9. mu sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal geštukul geššu-nir year: “Samsuiluna, the king, dedicated to Marduk the
    nig2-babbar-[ra] ku3-sig17 ku3-babbar me-te weapon, the shining emblem (decorated with) gold
    ˹e2˺-[e-ke4] dmarduk-ra a ˹mu-na˺-[ru] and silver, appropriate for the temple.”
    Seal impression(s?) mostly illegible.


§5.2.2. Partly broken envelope containing complete tablet. The text is a typical example of an Old Babylonian legal document recording the sale of a house-plot. The transcription given here is a composite text based on both the tablet and envelope. Part of the envelope is missing allowing one to view some of the text on the reverse of the tablet, but the case itself is too fragile for the tablet to be fully removed. The tablet itself appears whole and unbroken, though the surfaces of both are eroded and flaking. Lines obv. 10-12 are visible on the lower edge of the tablet and lines rev. 1-9 may be seen on the reverse. The case has lines 1-11 and then the date formula, rev. 9. It is unclear whether there are any divergences between the versions on each.

obv. 3-4: The name Uraš-awīlam-uballiţ may also be found in YOS 12, 78: 12 where the sign Uraš is copied as MA (it is also listed in the index of personal names as dMA.LU2.TI); it should probably read Uraš!. A similar name, Zababa-awīlam-uballiţ, is also known from later Old Babylonian texts (YOS 13, 286 11; 478 10).

obv. 11: Literally, “he satisfied (his) heart.”

obv. 12: An idiomatic expression meaning the transaction has been concluded. For discussion, see Steinkeller, 1989, 34-42.

rev. 4: The name Šubultum, though not mentioned in Stamm’s Namengebung is attested among a number of female personal names in CT 45, 107 3. A woman of the same name also occurs in CT 8, 2a 20 (see Wilcke 1982: 461ff. for an edition of this text) as the mother of a nadītum of Marduk called Lamassatum.


§6. Old Assyrian Texts
§6.1. “waklum” letter
Museum No.: 1983.97
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. um-ma wa-ak-lum2-ma Thus the “Overseer,”
  2. a-˹na˺ [ka3]-ri-im ka3-ni-iški to kārum-Kaneš:
  3. qi2-˹bi2-ma˺ a-lu-um speak! The city
  4. [di2]-˹nam˺ igi 2(diš) geš-gag-en [gave] a verdict, before two šugarriā’um-symbols,
  5. [gal?-en? i]-na ha-am-ri-im in the sacred precinct [...]
  6. [i-di2-in]-˹ma˺ 5(diš) a-wi-li five men [...]
  7. [...]-x  
    break of unknown no. of lines
rev. 1'. u2-x [...] [...]
  2'. a-šar e-˹ta?˺ [...] wherever [they ...]
  3'. i-ša-qu2-[lu ...] they will weigh [out ...]


§6.1.2. Fragment comprising the upper half of tablet; most of what is preserved of the reverse is uninscribed. This text is an important example of one of the official waklum-letters describing a legal verdict. Most similar among the other extant letters is ICK 1, 182, a letter addressed from the waklum to Kaneš, dealing with a verdict given in the hamrum. There are other examples about the city giving a verdict using the same basic formula with either less detail (ARK 3, 94 rev. 6: a-lu-um di2-nam i-di3-ma) or more (kt 88/k 1059 1-4, see below note on obv. 5). Both the latter examples are records of legal decisions rather than letters as they lack the standard introductory formula of a letter. For other waklum-letters see Çeçen 1990.

obv. 1: For discussion of waklum as a royal title see Larsen 1976: 129-147.

obv. 4: šugarriā’um – an emblem of the god Adad, before which oaths were sworn. Donbaz argues that this term is identical in function and meaning to patrum “dagger,” which occurs in similar legal contexts (Donbaz 2001: 95).

obv. 5: There seems to be sufficient space for another sign, at least, before i-na, so I have restored gal-en (rabi’en) by comparison with kt 88/k 1059 1-4: kišib3 wa-ak-lim a-lu-um di2-nam i-na ha-am-ri-im igi 2 geš-gag-en gal-en i-di2-in-ma(Donbaz 2001: 92). A reading of [gal i]

-na ha-am-ri-im is also possible, though based on restoration, as in KKSK I, 765: 1-3: igi ˹2 geš-gag-en˺ [gal] (ibid. 92 n. 40). The hamrum was the sacred precinct in the temple of Adad and frequent location of legal proceedings.

obv. 6: The role of the five men in this text is unclear. Several texts mention a committee comprising five individuals known as hamištum, “a group of five”, who are called into certain legal cases as arbitrators (see Larsen 197: 166-167). Other examples have five men being called in as witnesses, though they are not described as hamištum but rather şabum (CCT 4, 14a rev. 3: igi 5 şa-bi-im ...; CCT 5, 3a 30-31: 5 şa-ba-am a-hi-u2-tim u2-še2-ri-bu-ma). I know of no comparable examples which mention 5 awīlū. It seems likely that the verdict in this text begins with a statement that these five men were summoned in a legal capacity.

rev 2'-3': This section probably expresses a penalty based on the judgment given in the broken part of the text.


§6.2. Caravan account
Museum No.: 1983.98
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. i-na 5(u) 2(diš) tug2 ša Out of 52 textiles (from)
  2. e2 ˹a-šur-ma-lik 2(diš)˺ 1/2(diš) tug2 the house of Aššur-malik: 2 1/2 textiles
  3. ni-˹is-ha-tum˺ 1(diš)? 1/2(diš) ˹gin2˺ are the nishatum-tax; 1 1/2 shekels
  4. ku3-˹babbar˺ [i]-na-[pa2-al] ˹5(diš)˺ tug2 of silver will be paid; 5 textiles
  5. a-ši2-mi3-im ˹1(diš) tug2 hu-lu-qa2-u2˺ for pre-emption; 1 textile is lost;
  6. 4(u) tug2 iz!-˹ku-nim˺ 40 textiles became cleared;
  7. 3(diš) 1/2(diš) tug2 e2 ˹ka3-ri˺-im 3 1/2 textiles at the kārum-office
  8. i-la2-qe2-u2 i-na they will take.
  9. 5(u) 4(diš) tug2 qa2-dum Out of 54 textiles belonging to Amur-Ištar,
rev. 1. ša me-er-i-šu including those of his son:
  2. ša a-mur-eš18-dar 2(diš) 1/2(diš) tug2 2 1/2 textiles
  3. ni-is-ha-tum 3(diš) gin2 are the nishatum-tax; 3 shekels
  4. ku3-babbar i-na-pa2-al of silver will be paid;
  5. 5(diš) tug2 a-ši2-mi3-im 2(diš)+x? gin2 5 textiles for pre-emption; 2+x shekels
  6. ku3-babbar i-na-pa2-al of silver will be paid;
  7. 1(diš) tug2 hu-lu-qa2-u2 1 textile is lost;
  8. 3(u) 5(diš) tug2 i-hu-ur-ši2-im there are 35 textiles in the
  9. e-li-im i-ba-ši2-u2 upper storeroom;
  10. 1(u) 1/2(diš) tug2 e2 ka3-ri-im 10 1/2 textiles the kārum-office
  11. i-la2-qe2 5(diš) dan-a-šur i-la2-qe2 will take; Dān-Aššur will take 5.
le. e. 1. ši2-ti2 tug2 hi-a 3(u) tug2 The rest of the textiles: 30 textiles
  2. i-a-ti2 i-za-zu-nim will be available for me.


§6.2.2. Whole, unbroken, slightly pink-colored tablet which provides an account the distribution of a quantity of textiles. The nishatum-tax (lines 3, 12), an import tax imposed by the local Anatolian rulers on the Assyrian caravans is calculated at roughly 5%, which is borne out by the figures given here. The balance, paid in silver, is approximated at 15 shekels per textile. obv. 6: The sign read as iz- is clearly written UR, but this must be assumed to be a scribal mistake.

obv. 8ff.: The figures in the second half of the text only add up if we assume that the 35 textiles in the storeroom (rev. 8) are those referred to in lines 20-22.

rev. 1: me-er-i-šu probably refers either to the son or employee of Amur-Ištar.

rev. 5: If the palace is entitled to 315 textiles then the balance (15 textiles) should be worth c. 2 1/2 shekels, however the sign before the gin2 does not look like 1/2.

rev. 8-9: For a brief discussion of different storerooms see Dercksen 1996: 69-70 (re: kt n/k 1318); for texts mentioning the chief of the storehouses, see Veenhof 2008a: 221; see also kt 94/k 1106 for the storage of textiles in a huršum.


§6.3. Deposit of silver
Museum No.: 1983.99
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. 1(u) ma-na 4(diš) gin2! 10 minas, 4 shekels
  2. ku3-babbar şa-ru-pa2-am of refined silver—
  3. ša-du-a-su2 with the šaddūatum-tax due to him
  4. ša-bu ša he has been satisfied, that belonging to
  5. ša-lim-a-hi-im Šalim-ahum,
  6. a-na a-šur3-ma-lik to Aššur-malik,
rev. 1. ˹dumu˺ u2-şa-ri-a son of Uşariya
  2. ˹ap2˺-qi2-id I entrusted.
  3. igi ˹|BU3.ŠA|˺-18-dar Before Puzur-Ištar,
  4. dumu ˹a˺-[šur3]-ma-lik son of Aššur-malik.
  5. igi i-˹di2?˺-su2-in Before Iddi(n)-Suen,
  6. dumu šu-eš18-dar son of Šū-Ištar.
  7. igi |BU3.ŠA|-a-na Before Puzur-Annā,
  8. ˹dumu˺ e-li-a son of Elliya.


§6.3.2. This whole, unbroken tablet is a typical example of a “transport-contract” concerning a consignment of silver to be sent, most probably, from Kaneš to Aššur. For general discussion of these contracts, see Larsen 1967: 44-70.

obv. 3: šaddūatum – a transport tariff typically imposed on certain goods bound for Aššur, but also just within Anatolia (Dercksen 2004: 156-157); the subject of šabbū is the transporter, Aššur-malik.

obv. 6: Aššur-malik, son of Uşariya, is also attested in CCT 1, 28a rev. 4, and AKT 3, 96 18.

rev. 5: The traces look more like -ma.

rev. 7: For Puzur-Annā, son of Elliya, see Sturm 2001.


§6.4. Caravan account
Museum No.: 1983.100
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1'. x [...] ...
  2'. x [...] ...
  3'. 3(diš) x [...] 3 ...
  4'. ša-lim-a-˹hu˺-[um ...] Šalim-ahum [...]
  5'. ša 1(diš) me-at x [...] who? 100 [...]
rev. 1'. 5(u) 1(diš) tug2 šu-ru-˹tum˺ [x tug2] 51 šurum-textiles [...]
  2'. ša a-ki-di2-e u3 [...] Akkadian textiles and [...]
  3'. ša3-ba 1(u) tug2 ku-ta-[nu ...] out of 10 kutānu-textiles [...]
  4'. lu-qu2-tim ša ši2-x-[...] merchandise which [...]
  5'. u2-ra-di2-u2 di2-[...] he/I brought [...]
  6'. ˹2(aš)˺ gu2 4(u) 7(diš) ˹ma˺-[na ...] 2 talents, 47 minas [...]
  7'. ˹an˺-na-ka3 ša [...] your tin, which [...]
  8'. 2(u) 3(diš) 5/6(diš) ma-˹na˺ 23 5/6 minas
  9'. ˹ku3˺-bi 3(u) tug2 ku-[ta-nu] is its silver?; 30 kutānu-textiles [...]
  10'. [...] x-˹tim?˺ [...] ...
    break of unknown no. of lines
l.e. 1'. [...] x x x lu-pu-ut [...] record!
  2'. [...] x ku3-babbar x ˹ka3˺ ka3 [...] silver [...].


§6.4.2. A pale, slightly pink-coloured fragment describing a shipment of different kinds of textiles and perhaps also tin (rev. 7').

obv. 5'- rev. 5': It is possible that the ša in obv. 5', rather than that in rev. 4', governs the subjunctive (uraddiu) in line 5'.

rev. 2': For “Akkadian textiles,” see Veenhof 1972: 99-103, 158-159.

rev. 8'-9': “its silver” probably indicates the price of the tin mentioned in lines 6'-7'.


§6.5. Letter
Museum No.: 1983.101
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. [a-na] ˹a-šur-du10 qi2˺-[bi-ma] Speak [to] Aššur-ţāb,
  2. ˹um˺-ma |BU3.ŠA|-18-˹dar ˺-[ma] thus Puzur-Ištar:
  3. i-na 9(u) 3(diš) na-[ru-qa2-tim] out of 93 bags
  4. u3 1(aš) gu2 1(u) ma-na [an-na] and 1 talent and 10 minas of [tin]
  5. ku-nu-ki ša3-ba 9(diš) na-[ru-qa2-tim] under seal. Therefrom: 9 bags
  6. mu-nu-su2-nu 4(u) 1(diš) tug2 hi-a […] containing a count of 41 textiles [...]
  7. ša a-na-ni / ša a-[...] which Anani [...]
  8. iš-tu3 ha-hi-im ˹a?˺-[...] from Hahhum [...]
  9. ir-de8-a-ni / tug2 ˹hi˺-[a ...] he brought, (these) textiles [...]
  10. a-šur-ma-lik [il5-qe2] Aššur-malik [took?]
  11. tug2 hi-a 1(diš) a-na [...] textiles, 1 is for [...]
  12. ˹tug2˺ a-[na ...] x for [...]
    break of unknown no. of lines
rev.   broken
le. e. 1. [...]-˹lu?˺ tug2 hi-a 1(diš) a-˹na˺ [...] [...] textiles, 1 is for [...].


§6.5.2. Brown fragment of tablet preserving most of obverse of a letter.

obv. 1-2: The sender and recipient of this letter are likely to be working on behalf of the well-known merchant Imdī-ilum. Puzur-Ištar is attested as his son, while Aššur-ţāb was known to work for Imdī-ilum. See, for example: TC 1, 24; BIN 6, 219.

obv. 7: Anani (also read A-na-li2) is known from other texts as a transporter of goods (cf. ATHE 59) who worked for Imdī-ilum (Larsen 1967: 30 n. 42).

obv. 8: Hahhum was one of the main towns on the major route between Kanesh and Aššur, where the Assyrians also had a trading colony; it was also known for textiles (Veenhof 2008b: 7-10).


§6.6. Letter
Museum No.: 1983.102
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. [a-na] ˹|BU3.ŠA|?˺-a-šur qi2-bi-ma Speak to Puzur-Aššur,
  2. [um-ma] ˹wa˺-qu-ur-tum-ma thus Waqqurtum:
  3. [x x x] ˹ib˺ um en-na!?-a-˹šur˺ [...] Enna?-Aššur
  4. [x x]-ša-am la2-ah?-hu-ra-[ta?] [...] do not delay?
  5. [...] ˹nu˺-um the [...]
  6. [...] ˹ni˺-um ...
  7. [...] 1(u) 4(diš) ma-na 14 minas
  8. [ku3-babbar? x x] tug2 šu-ur-bu-i-tum [of silver? ...] Šurbu-wool [...]
  9. [...] x tab ši2 ik? ...
  10. [...] šu-ma ...
  11. [...] x-ta-ma ...
  12. [...] x na ...
rev.   broken


§6.6.2. Slightly pink fragment of tablet preserving part of obverse. This text is unfortunately mostly broken and the signs on the remaining fragment are quite shallow and worn. Given the participants, the mention of textiles is very appropriate.

obv. 1-2: Waqqurtum “precious one”, is the nickname of Ahāhā the daughter of Pūšu-kēn, a well-known figure in the Old Assyrian textile industry. We have at least one addressed to her from a certain Puzur-Aššur (TC 3/1, 17; edition in Veenhof 1972: 103-109), and, given that the traces may fit, I propose the restoration of his name here.

obv. 4: The reading of line 4 is very uncertain. I suggest that this may be a D-stative from ahārum and, if it is transitive, understand the object of the verb as the first half of this line. The deliberate writing of the doubled consonant, however, is not usual for Old Assyrian orthography.

obv. 8: šurbuītum – this term is defined in CAD (Š/3 342) as fourfold(?) wool, but Dercksen suggests that it derives from the name of a town, Šurbu, previously attested in the late third millennium (Dercksen 2004: 16). The adjective here must be understood to describe the feminine noun šaptum “wool”, though it is unwritten, rather than the masculine şubātum (tug2). See also TC 2, 14 6 for another such occurrence (27 tug2 sag10 šu-ur-bu-i-tum) and TC 2, 7 rev. 9-10, where šaptum is expressly written. There is also an unpublished letter from Lamassī to Pūšu-kēn, which gives the f. pl. form of the adjective, “Rendell” 6: 6 tug2 ša šu-ur-bu-i-a-tim (Veenhof, private communication).


§6.7. Letter?
Museum No.: 1983.103
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. [...] ˹a˺-du-da [...] Aduda
  2. [ku3-babbar? şa]-ru-pa2-˹am˺ refined [silver ...]
  3. [x] x [...] ...
rev. 1'. x ˹ša˺ [...] ...
  2'. [x] x x [...] ...
  3'. [x a?]-˹na˺ a-lim x [x] to the city [...]
  4'. [...] al?-˹qa2-a˺ I took [...]
  5'. [...]-mi3 di2 ...


§6.7.2. Brown fragment of tablet preserving only the very edge; from the curve of the surface of the fragment, it appears to be the upper edge. The text is too fragmentary to identify, but may be a letter.

obv. 1: Aduda is the name of a son of a prince (rubā’um) of Aššur (Veenhof 2003: 45). An Aduda is also attested in kt 90/k 127 and kt 90/k 319.

rev. 3': The city referred to here is certainly Aššur.


§6.8. Consignment of antimony
Museum No.: 1983.104
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. 3(diš) x […] 3 [...]
  2. a-šu-[mi3 …] on account [of ...],
  3. ša i-˹ku˺-[pi-…] that of Ikupi-[DN]
  4. a-na i-šar-˹be˺-[li2] for Išar-bēlī
  5. nu-ki-ri-bi4-im the gardener,
  6. ip-qi2-di2-ma he entrusted to me,
  7. 2-qu2-ul and I paid (him);
rev. 1. igi ša-lim-wa-ar?-di2 before Šalim-wardī.
  2. 4(diš) ma-na 4 minas
  3. lu-la2-am of antimony,
  4. i-na ab-na-˹ti2˺-[ni] by [our] weight system,
  5. a-na dnin-˹šubur˺-[ba-ni] to Ilabrat-[bāni]
  6. a-di2-[in] I gave;
  7. igi ˹im˺-[...] before Im-[...].
  8. ˹3(diš)˺+[x? ...] 3+[...]
l.e. 1. iš-ti2 a-šur3!-du10 are with Aššur-ţāb;
  2. ˹igi šu˺-eš18-dar dumu a-ta-ta before Šū-Ištar, son of Atata.


§6.8.2. Pink-colored tablet which is missing the upper right corner. This text contains information about at least two different transactions: 1) Payment for some item entrusted for Išar-bēlī; 2) A consignment of antimony, presumably for transport. Lines rev. 8 - l.e. 1 seem to represent a third transaction or witnessed claim.

obv. 5: This reference to Išar-bēlī’s profession is a relatively rare occurrence, as short texts such as this rarely provide detail, even patronymics, for the participants. A gardener is attested as being invited for a drinking party in OIP 27, 10: 25 (CAD N 2, 323) and two gardeners are attested among a list of people in kt 73/k 14: 27. A chief gardener is also attested (see: Veenhof 2008a: 222).

rev. 1: Šalim-wardī as a personal name seems to be otherwise unattested.

rev. 3: Antimony is mentioned in several texts (e.g.: kt h/k 38; kt a/k 265; KTS 1, 7a; AKT 3, 52; kt k/k 79; kt m/k 1), and is considered among goods traded within Anatolia, but not generally for export (Veenhof 2008a: 85).

rev. 4: For the Old Assyrian weight stones see Dercksen 1996: 80-81.

rev. 5: The signs at the beginning of the line are unclear but do not resemble DUMU as might be expected, if this line were to be taken with line 14.

l.e. 1: The sign as written resembles -na- more closely than -šur3- and one could also read the name as Annā-ţāb; Aššur-ţāb, however is better attested as a personal name. For Annā as a theophoric element in other Old Assyrian names, see the note to §6.3.2 obv. 13.


§6.9. Deposit of silver
Museum No.: 1983.105
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. 7(diš) gin2 ku3-babbar 7 shekels of silver,
  2. ša-ni-am a second (payment?),
  3. igi a-šur3-i-di3 before Aššur-idī,
  4. a-na i-ku!-nim?! to Ikunum?
rev. 5. a-di2-˹in˺ I gave.
  6. ša ša-˹lim˺!-18-dar Belonging to Šalim-Ištar.


§6.9.2. Whole, unbroken tablet with rectangular shape. This short text is quite atypical for its type. It is likely a transport contract (see Larsen 1967: 44-70 for further discussion), describing the deposit of silver belonging to Šalim-Ištar with Ikunum, as witnessed by Aššur-idī. The syntax is unusual as the witness is named in the middle, rather than after the transaction and the statement of ownership, presumably referring to the silver, is placed awkwardly at the end. Other texts are known to include a final clause following the witness(es) (e.g. CCT 5, 40b), but one would still expect the witness to be named after the main verb in line 5.

obv. 2: If this reading is correct, the use of šanium, here is unusual. It may refer to a second payment on a debt or a second investment by Šalim-Ištar with Ikunum. One could compare CCT 5, 17a rev. 3-4 which has: “apart from that I gave her a second amount of 1 1/2 shekels of silver,” (ahama 1 1/2 gin2 kaspam ša-ni-a-am adiššimma?).

obv. 4: The reading of this name is uncertain; the second sign resembles -lu- more closely and the third sign is difficult to identify.


§6.10. Fragment of envelope
Museum No.: 1983.106
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



  seal impression
Tablet impression on envelope:
  1'. [...] x x x [...] Too fragmentary for translation
  2'. [...] x x na ˹al˺ [...]
  3'. [...] x x ta ku? [...]
  4'. [...] x ša be ka3 [...]
  5'. [...] ši x x? [...]


§6.10.2. Reddish, curved fragment of envelope which has a seal impression on the exterior and the impression of some signs on the interior surface. This seal impression was first published in van der Osten’s Altorientalische Siegelsteine der Sammlung Hans Silvius von Aulock (1957) no. 334. The design, in the Old Assyrian style, is identical to that found on the left edge of 2000.196 (§6.13) and may be identified as the seal of Buzāzu, a well-known participant in the trade network. For additional examples and bibliography see VS 26, p. 46 no. 3.


§6.11. Debt of silver
Museum No.: 1983.109
Date: Year Eponym: Āl-ţāb
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. 2(diš) 1/2(diš) ma-na 8(diš) 1/2(diš) gin2 2 1/2 minas, 8 1/2 shekels
  2. ku3-babbar hu-bu-ul of silver is the debt
  3. i-ku-pi3-eš18-dar i-na of Ikupī-Ištar. Out of
  4. ku3-babbar x+˹1(diš)˺ gin2 šu-a-šur3 the silver Šū-Aššur x+1 shekels
  5. iš-qu2-lam u4-mu-šu paid. His term,
  6. 1(u) 7(diš) ha-am-ša-tum 17 hamuštum-periods
  7. e-ti!(DU)-qu2-ma / a-la2-hu-um have passed and Alāhum
  8. ˹ša-lim-a-hu-um˺ Šalim-ahum
  9. u3 šu-a-šur3 ˹3(diš) ša˺ and Šū-Aššur, the three who
  10. [x] ˹la? u? ki? ir? hi?˺ x x ...
rev. 1. [2(u)?] 4(diš) ma-na an-na 24? minas of tin,
  2. ˹ša?˺ ki-ma 4(dis) ma-na instead of 4 minas
  3. ku3-babbar şa-ru-pa2-am of refined silver
  4. i-ša-qa2-al he will weigh out.
  5. ţup-pu-um ša hu-bu-˹li !˺ There is a tablet of his debt.
  6. i-ba-ši2
  7. x x ...
  8. ˹2(dis) gin2˺ [...]-˹im˺ 2 shekels ...
  9. x x [...] x x ...
  10. a-limki 8(diš) x x the city, 8 ...
  11. x x x x ...
le. e. 1. x x x x x ...
  2. [x x] x [x x] ...


§6.11.2. Whole, unbroken tablet which displays some erosion and encrustation on surface; the edges in particular are almost illegible. It is unclear whether this is a letter, with the introductory formula absent, or a legal text. The latter is more probable if we consider the traces on the edges of the tablet to be the names of witnesses.

obv. 6-7: For similar examples from this period expressing the expiration of a deadline see CAD E etēqu A, 1. f).

obv. 7-10: The connection of the three individuals named in these lines to the rest of the text is unclear due to the difficulties of reading the signs on the edges of this tablet. It might be, particularly given Šū-Aššur’s partial payment of the debt (lines 4-5), that these three were acting as guarantors (ša qatātim); the traces, however, do not seem to fit this suggestion.

rev. 1: The restoration of 24 minas of tin at the beginning of this line is achieved by taking the value of tin at approximately one sixth that of silver.

rev. 2: A normal interest rate of 10% per month does not account for the increase from the original debt of 2 minas 8 1/2 shekels to 4 minas, especially considering that obv. 3-5 seem to represent a partial repayment of the debt.

rev. 4: The subject of išaqqal is surely Ikupī-Ištar.

rev. 7: This line appears mostly blank, but one horizontal and one vertical wedge, apparently unconnected to each other, are visible.

rev. 8 - l.e. 2: There appear to be at least two lines of text on each edge, but they are quite illegible.


§6.12. Loan of silver
Museum No.: 1992.256.7
Date: 10th month; eponym: Āl-ţāb
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. 1(u) 1(diš) gin2 ku3-babbar 11 shekels of
  2. ṣa-ru-pa2-am refined silver
  3. i-ṣe2-er
  4. im-li-ik-a Imlikaya
  5. e-la i-šu owes Ela.
  6. iš-tu3 ha-mu-uš-tim From the term
  7. ša li-u2-ši2-im of Liušum,
rev. 1. iti 1(diš)-kam ti-i-na-tum month of Tinatum,
  2. li-mu-um eponym year
  3. a-al-du10 of Āl-ţāb.
  4. ki-ma a-wa-at ka3-ri-im According to the decree of the kārum
  5. ṣi2-ib-tam2 interest
  6. u2-ṣa-ab2 he will add.
  7. igi ša-lim-a-šur3 Before Šalim-Aššur
  8. igi |BU3.ŠA|-a-šur3 (and) before Puzur-Aššur.


§6.12.2. Whole and unbroken, this tablet is a standard example of an Old Assyrian loan document. For detailed discussion of this type of text see Rosen 1977.

obv. 7: Liušum should likely be identified with the hamuštum-official in KTK 83, 8 (Eisser and Lewy 1930: no. 48 8: li-LU-ši2-im) where he acts as week eponym in the same year as the present text, but in month 9 (Kanwarta) rather than month 10, as here.


§6.13. Fragment of envelope
Museum No.: 2000.196
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)



obv. 1. a-na ˹|BU3.ŠA|˺-[a-šur] For Puzur-[Aššur],
  2. kišib3 il5-we-˹da˺-[ku] seal of Il(i)-wēdāku
  3. u3 bu-za-[zu] and Buzāzu.
    seal impression A
le. e.   seal impression B
Tablet impression on envelope:
rev. 1'. x x x x [...] Too fragmentary for translation
  2'. a x ni a? x [...]
  3'. la2 ba hu šu [...]
  4'. 2(diš) ma?-na a-x-[...]
  5'. wa-aš2-ba-ni [...]
  6'. te2-er-ti2-ka3 x [...]
  7'. ˹a?˺-la2-kam x [...]
  8'. x-bu?-ti2? um [...]
  9'. x x-am x x [...]
  10'. x x x a? x [...]
    break of unknown no. of lines
  1''. ne2-pa2-aš x [...]
  2''. wa-x x [...]
  3''. x ir x [...]
le. e. 1. te2-er-ti2-ka3 lu ne2-pu-˹˺ [...]
  2. ˹a˺-na-bu-um a-na re x [...]


§6.13.2. Corner fragment of a clay envelope, preserving part of three sides, with text and two different seal impressions on the exterior surface and the impression of the tablet formerly contained within on the interior surface. The two distinct seal impressions were both published previously as no. 334 in van der Osten’s Altorientalische Siegelsteine der Sammlung Hans Silvius von Aulock (1957).

Seal impression A (van der Osten 1957: no. 334 1) is in the Anatolian style and has been identified as belonging to Il(ī)-wēdāku. Seal impression B (van der Osten 1957, no. 334: 2) is the same design found on 1983.106 (§6.10). This impression has been identified as that of Buzāzu. For additional examples and bibliography see VS 26, p. 46 nos. 3 and 4.

The two individuals named in this text, Il(ī)-wēdāku and Buzāzu, are likely to be two well-known participants in the trade network, whose names often occur together (for examples of texts featuring both, see: OIP 27, 57; CCT 2, 31a; CCT 3, 32; kt 90/k 235). Il(ī)-wēdāku was a junior business partner of Puzur-Aššur (Dercksen 1996: 133-135) and Buzāzu, the son of one of Puzur-Aššur’s main business partners (Dercksen 1996: 133). Based on their close association with Puzur-Aššur, his name is restored in line 1. A very similar example would be VS 26, 85, also a fragment of an envelope, addressed to Puzur-Aššur and sealed by both Il(ī)-wēdāku and Buzāzu, with the same seals found here.


§6.14. Letter from Aššur-lamassī to Šū-Bēlum
Museum No.: 2000.197
Date: undated
Provenience: Kaneš (?)


§6.14.1. Square clay tablet and envelope. The tablet is whole and inscribed on both surfaces. The envelope is partially destroyed, but preserves multiple impressions of the seal of Aššur-lamassī, the sender.

The text is a 25 line letter sent by Aššur-lamassī, to Šū-Bēlum in Kanesh, informing him that he is sending the silver from the sale of 7 talents and 30 minas of copper, transported by an Iddi(n)-Suen. All the individuals named in this text are also mentioned in the archive of the copper trader Adad-Şululī (Dercksen 1996: 93-107).


§7. Hittite Text
§7.1. Hittite Ritual Text with Hurrian Recitations
Museum No.: 1992.256.6
Date: 13th century BC
Provenience: Bogazköy(?)



  1'. [...]-˹kan2?˺ [...] too fragmentary for translation
  2'. [...] x x x x x x [...]
  3'. [...] x-ki-e-ni ˹ku˺-la-mu-ur-˹ši˺-[e-ni ...]
  4'. [nam-ma(?) ninda] ˹sig˺ nindaša-la-kar-ia [After that] he breaks [a thin] bread and a šalakar-
    par2-ši-ia ˹hur˺-[li-li-ma me-ma-i ka-a-al-li-iš] bread; [he speaks] in Hurrian: [ēkalliš]
  5'. [ka-ma-ah]-˹hi˺-ni-eš na-aš-ta a-na ninda sig kamahinieš.” Then [morsel(s)] from the thin bread
    ninda[ša-la-ak-ri-ia a-na-a-hi] [and the šalakar]-bread
  6'. [pe2-ra]-˹an˺ ar-ha da-a-i na-at-kan2 he takes away and [places] them [in the ahrušhi-
    [duga-ah-ru-uš-hi i3-geš an-da da-a-i (…)] vessel into oil. (…)]
  7'. [na-at]-˹ša˺-an ˹dughu-u-up-ru-uš-hi˺-ia [Then he puts them] in the huprušhi-vessel
    ˹ha˺-[aš-ši-i pe2-eš-ši-ia-az-zi hur-li-li-ma] [on the] hearth; [in Hurrian]
  8'. [a-na-hi]-˹te˺-ni-˹˺ <<x>> ˹da-a-tu-uš˺ [he speaks]: “anahitenieš datuššenieš [kelu].”
    -še-ni-˹˺ [ke-e-lu me-ma-i]  
  9'. [na-at]-˹ša˺-an duggal geštin ni-[...] A cup of wine … […]
  10'. [x x (x)] x lu2azu ar-ha ˹da?-a?˺-[i? ...] […] … the azu-priest […]
  11'. [na]-˹at˺-ša-an 2(diš) 1/2(diš) ninda sig takes away. [And] 2 1/2 thin breads, […]-bread
  12'. [x (x)] ˹ke˺-e-ez ke-e-˹zi˺-[ia ...] [… from/on] one side and from/on the other side […]
  13'. [x (x)] x ku-i-iš-ma [...] […] but who […]
  14'. [x x (x)]-ma-kan2 a-x-[...] but […]
  15'. [...] x x [...] too fragmentary for translation
  16'. [...] x x [...]


Copy courtesy of D. Schwemer


§7.1.2. Small fragment of a middle-sized one- or two-columned Hittite library tablet (surface slightly curved), New Hittite script (13th century BC). No duplicate of the preserved portions of text has yet been found. Hittite passages are transliterated in italic type, Hurrian text in roman type.

The tablet contained a Hurro-Hittite ‘Kizzuwatna’ ritual performed by the AZU-priest. A comprehensive edition of the texts of this group was provided by Salvini and Wegner 1986 (= ChS 1/2). Individual phrases and words parallel to those preserved on the present fragment can easily be found in the glossary of ChS 1/2.

3': Cf. ChS 1/2, 72 obv.? 9'.

4'-8': Placing morsels of offering substances first into an ahrušhi-vessel filled with oil and then into a huprušhi-vessel standing on the hearth is a standard procedure in the rituals of the AZU-priest (see Haas 1994: 650–651; Kühne 1993). These actions are accompanied by the recitation of short Hurrian formulas. The reconstruction of the Hittite text and the Hurrian formulas follows passages such as ChS 1/2, 1 obv. ii 46–56, rev. iii 33–34 and their numerous parallels. At the end of l. 6' one expects an additional sentence that, according to the parallels, would probably have to be restored as našta ša ninda sig nindašalakrašša anahi dugahrušhiyaz šarā dāi “he takes up the morsel(s) of the thin bread and of the šalakar-bread from the ahrušhi-vessel.” But the room available in the break can hardly accommodate such a restoration.

5': The dat.-loc. of šalakar is not attested otherwise; for the reconstructed form cf. the pl. nom.-acc. nindaša-la!-ak-ra in Bo 3324 obv. i 6 (see CHD Š 83b; all other attested forms are sg. nom.-acc. šalakar).


§8. Index of Old Assyrian Names

Aduda 6.7: 1
Alāhum 6.11: 7
Āl-ţāb 6.12: 10
Amur-Ištar 6.2: 11
Anani 6.5: 7
Aššur-idī 6.9: 3
Aššur-lamassī 6.14
Aššur-malik 6.2: 2; 6.5: 10
Aššur-malik f. Puzur-Ištar 6.3: 10
Aššur-malik s. Uşariya 6.3: 6
Aššur-ţāb 6.5: 1; 6.8: 15
Atata f. Šū-Ištar 6.8: 16
Buzāzu 6.13: 3′
Dān-Aššur 6.2: 20
Ela 6.12: 5
Elliya f. Puzur-Annā 6.3: 14
Enna-Aššur 6.6: 3(?)
Iddi(n)-Suen s. Šū-Ištar 6.3: 11
Iddi(n)-Suen 6.14
Ikunum ? 6.9: 4
Ikupī-Ištar 6.11: 3
Ikupī-... 6.8: 3
dIlabrat-bāni 6.8: 12
Il(ī)-wēdāku 6.13: 2′
Imlikaya 6.12: 4
Išar-bēlī 6.8: 4
Liušum 6.12: 7
Puzur-Annā s. Elliya 6.3: 13
Puzur-Aššur 6.6: 1(?); 6.12: 15
Puzur-Ištar 6.5: 2
Puzur-Ištar s. Aššur-malik 6.3: 9
Šalim-ahum 6.3: 5; 6.4: 4'; 6.11: 8
Šalim-Aššur 6.12: 14
Šalim-Ištar 6.9: 6
Šalim-wardī 6.8: 8
Šū-Aššur 6.11: 4, 9
Šū-Bēlum 6.14
Šū-Ištar s. Atata 6.8: 16
Šū-Ištar f. Iddi(n)-Suen 6.3.12
Uşariya f. Aššur-malik 6.3: 7
Waqqurtum 6.6: 2





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Version: 6 July 2010  

Cite this Article

Ragavan, Deena. 2010. “Cuneiform Texts and Fragments in the Harvard Art Museum / Arthur M. Sackler Museum.” Cuneiform Digital Library Journal 2010 (1).

Ragavan, Deena. (2010). Cuneiform Texts and Fragments in the Harvard Art Museum / Arthur M. Sackler Museum. Cuneiform Digital Library Journal, 2010(1).

Ragavan, Deena (2010) “Cuneiform Texts and Fragments in the Harvard Art Museum / Arthur M. Sackler Museum,” Cuneiform Digital Library Journal, 2010(1). Available at: (Accessed: February 2, 2023).

  • note = {[Online; accessed 2023-02-02]},
  • address = {Oxford; Berlin; Los Angeles},
  • author = {Ragavan, Deena},
  • journal = {Cuneiform Digital Library Journal},
  • number = {1},
  • year = {2010},
  • month = {jul 6},
  • publisher = {Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative},
  • title = {Cuneiform {Texts} and {Fragments} in the {Harvard} {Art} {Museum} / {Arthur} {M}. {Sackler} {Museum}},
  • volume = {2010},

AU  - Ragavan,  Deena
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IS  - 1
J2  - CDLJ
SN  - 1540-8779
T2  - Cuneiform Digital Library Journal
TI  - Cuneiform Texts and Fragments in the Harvard Art Museum / Arthur M. Sa
ckler Museum
UR  -
VL  - 2010
Y2  - 2023/2/2/
ER  -