Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia no. 35 (Cyrus cylinder) (P386349)

Official or display barrel dated to the Achaemenid (547-331 BC) period and now kept in British Museum, London, UK

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Museum Collection(s)

British Museum, London, UK

Museum Number

BM 090920


Achaemenid (547-331 BC)



Artifact Type




Genre / Subgenre(s)

Official or display (witness)




100.0 mm × 225.0 mm × 100.0 mm

object barrel
surface a
1. [i3-nu ...] x-ni-szu
 en: [When ...] ...
2. [... ki]-ib#-ra-a-ti3
 en: [... of the four] quarters
3. [...] x x _gal_ ma-tu-u2 isz-szak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti-szu2
 en: ... an incompetent person [i.e., Nabonidus] was installed to exercise lordship over his country.
4. u3#? [...]-szi-li u2-sza-asz2-ki-na se-ru-szu-un
 en: and? [...] he imposed upon them.
5. ta-am-szi-li e2-sag-il2 i-te-[pu-usz-ma ...]-ti3#? a-na uri2{ki} u3 si-it-ta-a-ti3 ma-ha-za
 en: An ersatz of Esagila he made, [and ...] ... for Ur and the rest of the cultic centers,
6. pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti-szu-nu ta-[ak-li-im la-me-si ... la] pa-lih u4-mi-sza2-am-ma id-de-ne2-eb-bu-ub u3 ana# ma#-ag#-ri-ti3
 en: a ritual which was improper to them, an [unholy] display [offering x x x without] fear he daily recited. Irreverently,
7. sat-tuk-ku u2-szab-ti-li u2-la#-[ap-pi-it pel2-lu-de-e ... isz]-tak-ka-an qe2-reb ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha {d}marduk _lugal dingir-mesz_ ig#-mur# kar-szu-usz-szu
 en: he put an end to the regular offerings (and) he interfered [in the cultic centers; ... he] established in the sacred centers. By his own plan, he did away with the worship of Marduk, the king of the gods,
8. le-mu-ut-ti _iri_-szu [i]-te#-ne2-ep-pu-usz# u4-mi-sza-am-ma# x x [... _ug3]-mesz_-szu2 i-na ab-sza-a-ni la ta-ap-szu-uh2-ti3 u2-hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in
 en: he continually did evil against Marduk’s city. Daily, [...] without interruption, he imposed the corvee upon its inhabitants unrelentingly, ruining them all.
9. a-na ta-zi-im-ti-szi-na {d}en-lil2 _dingir-mesz_ ez-zi-isz i-gu-ug-ma# [...] ki-su-ur2-szu-un _dingir-mesz_ a-szi-ib lib3-bi-szu-nu i-zi-bu at-ma#-an-szu-un
 en: Upon hearing their cries, the lord of the gods became furiously angry and [...] their borders; the gods who lived among them forsook their dwellings,
10. i-na ug-ga-ti-sza u2-sze-ri-bi a-na qe2-reb szu-an-na{ki} {d}marduk ti#-[iz-qa-ru {d}en-lil2 _dingir]-mesz#_ us-sa-ah-ra a-na nap-har da-ad2-mi sza2 in-na-du-u2 szu-bat-su-un
 en: angry that he [sc. Nabonidus] had brought them to Babylon. Marduk, the exalted, [the lord of the gods], turned towards all the habitations that were abandoned and
11. u3 _ug3-mesz kur_ szu-me-ri u3 uri{ki} sza i-mu-u2 sza-lam-ta-asz2 u2-sa-ah#-hi-ir ka-bat#-[ta-asz2] ir-ta-szi ta-a-a-ra kul-lat ma-ta-a-ta ka-li-szi-na i-hi-it ib-re-e-ma
 en: all the people of Sumer and Akkad, who had become corpses. He was reconciled and had mercy upon them. He examined and checked all the entirety of the lands, all of them,
12. isz-te-'e-e-ma ma-al-ki i-sza2-ru bi-bil lib3-bi-sza it-ta-ma-ah qa-tu-usz-szu {disz}ku-ra-asz2 _lugal iri_ an-sza-an it-ta-bi ni-bi-it-su a-na ma-li-ku-ti3 kul-la-ta nap-har iz-zak-ra szu-um#-szu2#
 en: he searched everywhere and then he took a righteous king, his favorite, by the hand, he called out his name: Cyrus, king of Anshan; he pronounced his name to be king all over the world.
13. _kur_ qu-ti-i gi-mir um-man-man-da u2-ka-an-ni-sza a-na sze-pi-szu _ug3-mesz_ sal-mat _sag-du_ sza u2-sza-ak-szi-du qa-ta-a-szu2
 en: He made the land of Gutium and all the Umman-manda [i.e., the Medes] bow in submission at his feet. And he [i.e., Cyrus] shepherded with justice and righteousness all the black-headed people,
14. i-na ki-it-ti3 u3 mi-sza2-ru isz-te-ne2-'e-e-szi-na-a-ti3 {d}marduk _en gal_ ta-ru-u2 _ug3-mesz_-szu2 ep-sze-e-ti-sza dam-qa-a-ta u3 lib3-ba-szu i-sza-ra ha-di-isz ip-pa-li-is#
 en: over whom he [i.e., Marduk] had given him victory. Marduk, the great lord, guardian of his people, looked with gladness upon his good deeds and upright heart.
15. a-na _iri_-szu _ka2-dingir-mesz_ ki a-la-ak-szu iq-bi u2-sza-as-bi-it-su-ma har-ra-nu tin-tir{ki} ki-ma ib-ri u3 tap-pe-e it-tal-la-ka i-da-a-szu
 en: He ordered him to go to his city Babylon. He set him on the road to Babylon and like a companion and a friend, he went at his side.
16. um-ma-ni-szu rap-sza-a-ti3 sza ki-ma me-e _i7_ la u2-ta-ad-du-u2 ni-ba-szu-un _{gesz}tukul-mesz_-szu-nu sa-an-du-ma i-sza-ad-di-ha i-da-a-szu
 en: His vast army, whose number, like water of the river, cannot be known, marched at his side fully armed.
17. ba-lu qab-li u3 ta-ha-zi u2-sze-ri-ba-asz2 qe2-reb szu-an-na{ki} _iri_-szu _ka2-dingir-mesz_ ki i-ti-ir i-na szap-sza-qi2 {disz}{d}na3-ni2-tuku _lugal_ la pa-li-hi-szu u2-ma-al-la-a qa-tu-usz-szu2
 en: He made him enter his city Babylon without fighting or battle; he saved Babylon from hardship. He delivered Nabonidus, the king who did not revere him, into his hands.
18. _ug3-mesz_ tin-tir{ki} ka-li-szu-nu nap-har _kur_ szu-me-ri u uri{ki} ru-be2-e u3 szak-ka-nak-ka sza-pal-szu ik-mi-sa u2-na-asz2-szi-qu sze-pu-usz-szu ih-du-u2 a-na _lugal_-u2-ti-szu2 im-mi-ru pa-nu-usz-szu2-un
 en: All the people of Babylon, all the land of Sumer and Akkad, princes and governors, bowed to him and kissed his feet. They rejoiced at his kingship and their faces shone.
19. be-lu sza i-na tu-kul-ti-sza u2-bal-li-tu mi-tu-ta-an i-na pu-usz-qu u3 u2-de-e ig-mi-lu kul-la-ta-an ta-bi-isz ik-ta-ar-ra-bu-szu isz-tam-ma-ru zi-ki-ir-szu
 en: Lord by whose aid the dead were revived and who had all been redeemed from hardship and difficulty, they greeted him with gladness and praised his name.
20. a-na-ku {disz}ku-ra-asz2 _lugal_ kisz-szat _lugal gal lugal_ dan-nu _lugal_ tin-tir{ki} _lugal kur_ szu-me-ri u2 ak-ka-di-i _lugal_ kib-ra-a-ti er-be2-et-ti3
 en: I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters,
21. _dumu_ {disz}ka-am-bu-zi-ia _lugal gal lugal iri_ an-sza-an _dumu-dumu_ {disz}ku-ra-asz2 _lugal gal lugal# iri#_ an-sza-an _sza3-bala-bala_ {disz}szi-isz-pi-isz _lugal gal lugal iri_ an-sza2-an
 en: the son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan,
22. _numun_ da-ru-u2 sza _lugal_-u2-tu sza {d}en u {d}na3 ir-a-mu pa-la-a-szu a-na tu-ub lib3-bi-szu2-nu ih-szi-ha _lugal#_-ut-su e-nu-ma a-na# qe2#-reb tin-tir{ki} e-ru-bu sa-li-mi-isz
 en: of an eternal line of kingship, whose rule Bel and Nabu love, whose kingship they desire fot their hearts’ pleasure. When I entered Babylon in a peaceful manner,
23. i-na ul-si u3 ri-sza-a-ti3 i-na _e2-gal_ ma-al-ki ar-ma-a szu-bat be-lu-ti3 {d}marduk _en gal_ lib3-bi ri-it-pa-szu sza ra-im# tin-tir{ki} szi-ma#-a#-tisz# isz#-ku#?-na#-an-ni-ma _u4_-mi-szam a-sze-'a-a pa-la-ah#-szu2
 en: I took up my lordly abode in the royal palace amidst rejoicing and happiness. Marduk, the great lord, established as his fate for me a magnanimous heart of one who loves Babylon, and I daily attended to his worship.
24. um-ma-ni-ia rap-sza-ti3 i-na qe2-reb tin-tir{ki} i-sza-ad-di-ha szu2-ul-ma-nisz nap-har _kur_ [szu-me-ri] u3# uri{ki} mu-gal-li#-ti3 ul u2-szar-szi
 en: My vast army marched into Babylon in peace; I did not permit anyone to frighten the people of [Sumer] and Akkad.
25. _iri#{ki#}_ babila{ki} u3 kul-lat ma-ha-zi-szu i-na sza-li-im-ti3 asz2-te-'e-e _dumu-mesz_ tin-tir[{ki} ...] sza# ki-ma la lib3-[bi] _dingir_-ma ab-sza2-a-ni la si-ma-ti-szu2-nu szu-ziz-zu!#
 en: I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon and all its sacred centers. As for the citizens of Babylon, [... upon] whom he [i.e., Nabonidus] imposed a corvee which was not the gods’ wish and not befitting them,
26. an-hu-ut-su-un u2-pa-asz2-szi-ha u2-sza-ap-ti-ir sa-ar-ma-szu-nu a-na ep-sze-e-ti-[ia dam-qa-a-ti] {d}marduk _en gal#_-u2 ih-de-e-ma
 en: I relieved their weariness and freed them from their service. Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced over [my good] deeds.
27. a-na ia-a-ti {disz}ku-ra-asz2 _lugal_ pa-li-ih-szu u3 {disz}ka-am-bu-zi-ia _dumu_ si-it lib3-bi-[ia u3 a]-na# nap-har# um-ma-ni-ia
 en: He sent gracious blessing upon me, Cyrus, the king who worships him, and upon Cambyses, the son who is [my] offspring, [and] upon all my army,
28. da-am-qi2-isz2 ik-ru-ub-ma i-na sza2-lim-ti3 ma-har-sza ta-bi-isz ni-it-ta#-[al-la-ak i-na qi2-bi-ti-szu2] sir-ti nap-har _lugal_ a-szi-ib _bara2-mesz_
 en: and in peace, before him, we moved around in friendship. [By his] exalted [word], all the kings who sit upon thrones
29. sza ka-li-isz kib-ra-a-ta isz-tu tam-ti3 e-li-ti3 a-di tam-ti3 szap-li-ti3 a-szi-ib na#-[gi-i ne2-su-ti3] _lugal-mesz kur_ a-mur-ri-i a-szi-ib kusz-ta-ri ka-li-szu2-un
 en: throughout the world, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, who live in the districts [far-off], the kings of the West, who dwell in tents, all of them,
30. bi-lat-su-nu ka-bi-it-ti3 u2-bi-lu-nim-ma qe2-er-ba szu-an-na{ki} u2-na-asz2-szi-qu sze-pu-u2-a isz-tu [szu-an-na]{ki#} a-di _iri_ asz-szur{ki} u3 szuszin{ki}
 en: brought their heavy tribute before me and in Babylon they kissed my feet. From [Babylon] to Assur and (from) Susa,
31. a-ka3-de3{ki} _kur_ esz3-nu-nak _iri_ za-am-ba-an _iri_ me-tur2-nu bad3-an{ki} a-di pa-at _kur_ qu-ti-i ma-ha-za# [e]-ber#-ti _i7_ idigna sza isz-tu pa!-na-ma na-du-u2 szu-bat-su-un
 en: Agade, Eshnunna, Zamban, Me-Turnu, Der, as far as the region of Gutium, the sacred centers on the other side of the Tigris, whose sanctuaries had been abandoned for a long time,
32. _dingir-mesz_ a-szi-ib lib3-bi-szu2-nu a-na asz2-ri-szu-nu u2-tir-ma u2-szar-ma-a szu-bat da-ri2-a-ta kul-lat _ug3-mesz_-szu2-nu u2-pa-ah-hi-ra-am-ma u2-te-er da-ad2-mi-szu2-un
 en: I returned the images of the gods, who had resided there [i.e., in Babylon], to their places and I let them dwell in eternal abodes. I gathered all their inhabitants and returned to them their dwellings.
33. u3 _dingir-mesz kur_ szu-me-ri u3 uri{ki} sza {disz}{d}na3-ni2-tuku a-na ug-ga-ti3 _en dingir-mesz_ u2-sze-ri-bi a-na qe2-reb szu-an-na{ki} i-na qi2-bi-ti {d}marduk _en gal_ i-na sza-li-im-ti3
 en: In addition, at the command of Marduk, the great lord, I settled in their habitations, in pleasing abodes, the gods of Sumer and Akkad, whom Nabonidus, to the anger of the lord of the gods, had brought into Babylon.
34. i-na masz-ta-ki-szu-nu u2-sze-szi-ib szu2-ba-at tu-ub lib3-bi <<ut>> kul-la-ta _dingir-mesz_ sza u2-sze-ri-bi a-na qe2-er-bi ma-ha-zi-szu-un
 en: May all the gods whom I settled in their sacred centers ask daily
35. _u4_-mi-sza-am ma-har {d}en u3 {d}na3 sza a-ra-ku _u4-mesz_-ia li-ta-mu-u2 lit-taz-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un-qi2-ia u3 a-na {d}marduk _en_-ia li-iq-bu-u2 sza {disz}ku-ra-asz2 <<asz>> _lugal_ pa-li-hi-ka u {disz}ka-am-bu-zi-ia _dumu_-szu2
 en: of Bel and Nabu that my days be long and may they intercede for my welfare. May they say to Marduk, my lord: “As for Cyrus, the king who reveres you, and Cambyses, his son,
36. x [...]-ib# szu-nu lu-u2 x x x x x x _ug3-mesz_ tin-tir{ki} ik#-tar#-ra#-bu# _lugal_-u2-tu _kur-kur_ ka-li-szi-na szu-ub-ti ne2-eh-ti3 u2-sze-szi-ib
 en: [...].” The people of Babylon blessed my kingship, and I settled all the lands in peaceful abodes.
37. [_n kur]-gi{muszen} 2(disz) uz-tur{muszen}_ u3 _1(u) tu-gur4{muszen}-mesz_ e-li _kur-gi{muszen} uz-tur{muszen}_ u3 _tu-gur4{muszen}-mesz_
 en: I [daily increased the number offerings to n] geese, two ducks, and ten turledoves above the former offerings of geese, ducks, and turtledoves.
38. [... _u4_]-mi-szam u2-ta-ah-hi-id _bad3_ im-gur-{d}en-lil2 _bad3 gal_-a sza tin-tir{ki#} [ma-as]-sar#-ta#-szu2 du-un-nu-nu3 asz2-te-'e-e-ma
 en: [...] Dur-Imgur-Enlil, the great wall of Babylon, its defense, I sought to strengthen
39. [...] ka-a-ri a-gur-ru sza2 _gu2_ ha-ri-si sza _lugal_ mah-ri i-pu#-[szu-ma la u2]-szak#-li#-lu# szi-pi-ir-szu
 en: [...] The quay wall of brick, which a former king had built, [but had not] completed its construction,
40. [... la u2-sza-as-hi-ru _iri_] a#-na ki-da-a-ni sza _lugal_ ma-ah-ra la i-pu-szu um-man-ni-szu di-ku-ut# [ma-ti-szu i?-na] qe2#-reb# szu-an-na{ki}
 en: [...who had not surrounded the city] on the outside, which no former king had made, (who) a levy of workmen? [had led] into Babylon,
41. [... i-na _esir had-ra2]-a#_ u3 _sig4 al-ur3-ra_ esz-szi-isz e-pu-usz-ma [u2-szak-lil szi-pir-szi]-in
 en: [... with bitumen] and bricks, I built anew [and completed] their [job].
42. [... _{gesz}ig-mesz {gesz}erin-mah]-mesz_ ta-ah-lu-up-ti3 _zabar_ as-ku-up-pu u3 nu-ku-sze#-[e pi-ti-iq e-ri-i e-ma _ka2-mesz_]-szi#-na
 en: [... magnificent gates of cedar] with a bronze overlay, thresholds and door-sockets [cast in copper, I fixed in all] their [doorways].
43. [u2-ra-at-ti ...] szi#-ti-ir szu-mu sza2 {disz}an-szar2-du3-ibila _lugal_ a-lik mah-ri-[ia sza2 qer-ba-szu ap-pa]-al#-sa!
 en: [...] an inscription with the name of Assurbanipal, a king who had preceded [me, I] saw [in its midst].
44. [...] x x x [...]-x-ti3
 en: [...]
45. [...] x x x [x x a-na] da#-ri2-a-ti3
 en: [...] for eternity.

Consult previous versions and their differences
Consult sign list of Achaemenid (547-331 BC)
Consult word list of Achaemenid (547-331 BC)

  • Artifact type: Barrel
  • Material: Clay
  • Measurements (mm): 100.0 high × 225.0 wide × 100.0 thick
  • Weight:
  • Artifact Preservation: 75%
  • Condition Description:
  • Join Information:
  • Seal no.:
  • Seal information:
  • Artifact comments:

  • Rawlinson, Henry C., and Theophilus G. Pinches. 1884, 1909. [Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia no. 35 (Cyrus cylinder) (Pinches1884, 1909-159235)]


  • N.d. [Pritchard, James B., ANET, 3rd ed. (1969)Berger, P.-R., ZA 65 (1975) 192-234Mitchell, Terrence C., Bible in the BM (1988)Schaudig, Hanspeter, Inschriften Nabonids ... Kyros des Großen (2001)Cogan, Mordechai, in Hallo & Younger, eds., Context of Scripture 2 (2003)Michalowski, Piotr, Cyrus Cylinder in Historical Sources (Oxford 2006), 426-430 (sec100194)]


  • Composite No.:
  • Museum No.: BM 090920
  • Accession No.:

  • Provenience:
  • Elevation:
  • Stratigraphic Level:
  • Excavation No:
  • Findspot Square:
  • Findspot Comments:


  • Period: Achaemenid (547-331 BC)
  • Dates Referenced: Cyrus2.00.00.00
  • Alternative Years:
  • Date Comments:
  • Accounting Period: 0

Created Creator Type Authors Project Reviewer Status Action
2023-01-21 at 07:56:19 Pagé-Perron, Émilie artifact Földi, Zsombor; Jiménez, Enrique; Pagé-Perron, Émilie Electronic Babylonian Library Pagé-Perron, Émilie approved View
2016-11-06 at 11:19:53 Englund, Robert K. atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2013-11-23 at 12:19:42 Englund, Robert K. atf Linkohr, Oleg CDLI approved View
2011-01-19 at 15:32:35 Englund, Robert K. atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2008-06-01 at 00:00:00 CDLI artifact CDLI CDLI approved View

Consult this artifact as presented on the website of collections and projects:

General Notes: -
CDLI Notes:

20141102 englund: NBC 02504 = BIN 02, 032, now in BM

Cite this Artifact
“Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia No. 35 (Cyrus Cylinder) Artifact Entry.” (2008) 2023. Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). February 1, 2023.
Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia no. 35 (Cyrus cylinder) artifact entry (No. P386349). (2023, February 1). Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). (Original work published 2008)
Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia no. 35 (Cyrus cylinder) artifact entry (2023) Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). Available at: (Accessed: May 28, 2023).
	note = {[Online; accessed 2023-05-28]},
	year = {2023},
	month = {feb 1},
	title = {Selection from the {Miscellaneous} {Inscriptions} of {Assyria} and {Babylonia} no. 35 ({Cyrus} cylinder) artifact entry},
	howpublished = {},

DA  - 2023/2/1/
ID  - P386349
LB  - CDLI:P386349
M1  - 2023/5/28/
TI  - Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia
 no. 35 (Cyrus cylinder) artifact entry
UR  -
ER  - 
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