CDLI Literary 000761, ex. 038 (P346118)

Literary tablet excavated in Ur (mod. Tell Muqayyar), dated to the Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC) period and now kept in British Museum, London, UK

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Chemical Data

Seal Chemistry


Museum Collection(s)

British Museum, London, UK

Museum Number

BM —


Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)


Ur (mod. Tell Muqayyar)

Artifact Type




Genre / Subgenre(s)

Literary (ETCSL 5.03.02 Debate between Grain and Sheep (witness))






1. hur-sag an-ki-bi-da-ke4
 en: On the mountain range (spanning) both heaven and earth
2. u4 an-ne2 dingir {d}a-nun-na im-tu-de3-esz-a-ba#
 en: When An fathered the Anuna gods
3. mu {d}asznan nu-ub-ta-tu-da-asz nu-un-da-sag12-ga#?-a#-asz
 en: Because no one had been able to give birth to or create Ašnan (yet)
4. kalam-ma gu {d}uttu nu-ub-da-dim2-ma-[asz]
 en: Because the flax of (the weaving goddess) Uttu had not been created along with them
5. {d}uttu-ra temen nu-mu-un-na-si-ga-a-asz
 en: Because the pegs (of the loom) had not been set for Uttu
6. u8 nu-e3-a sila4 nu-szar2-ra-am3
 en: (Because) the ewe had not come forth, the lamb had not multiplied
7. ud5 nu-e3-a masz2 nu-szar2-ra-am3
 en: (Because) the goat had not come forth, the kid had not multiplied
8. u8-e sila4 min-bi nu-ub-tu-u4
 en: (Because) the ewe had not given birth to its lamb
9. ud5-e masz2 esz5-bi nu-um-tu-u4
 en: (Because) the goat had not given birth to its kid
10. mu {d}asznan {d}ku3-su3 {d}lahar-bi-da-ke4
 en: The names of both Ezina-Kusu (deified grain) and lahar (deified ewe)
11. {d}a-nun-na dingir gal-gal-e-ne nu-mu-un-zu-usz-am3
 en: The Anuna, the great gods, did not know
12. sze-musz5 u4 uszu3-kam nu-gal2-la-am3
 en: The muš barley of the thirtieth day was not present
13. sze-musz5 u4 nimin-kam nu-gal2-la-am3
 en: The muš barley of the fortieth day was not present
14. sze-musz5 u4 ninnu-kam nu-gal2-la-am3
 en: The muš barley of the fiftieth day was not present
15. sze tur-tur sze kur-ra sze a2-dam ku3-ga nu-gal2-la-am3
 en: The small barley, the barley of the mountain, the barley of the pure settlement was not present
16. tug2 nig2 mur10-mur10-bi nu-gal2-la-am3
 en: Wearing of garments was not present
17. {d}uttu nu-tu-u4 men nu-il2
 en: Uttu was not yet born, the crown was not yet raised
18. en {d}nimgir-si en {d}kal-kal nu-tu-u4
 en: Lord Bridegroom (Dumuzi) and Kalkal (the gatekeeper of the Ekur) were not yet born
19. {d}szakkan bar-rim4-ma# la-ba-ra-e3-a
 en: Sumuqan had not yet come out in the dry land
20. nam-lu2-lu7 u4 ri-a-ke4-ne
 en: The humans of that distant time
21. ninda gu7!-u3-de3 nu-mu-un-zu-usz-am3
 en: They did not know that food was to be eaten
22. tug2 nig2 mur10-mur10-bi nu-mu-un-zu-usz-am3
 en: They did not know the wearing of garments
23. kalam-ma gesz-ge-en su-bi mu-un-gen
 en: In the land (one) went/stood (on) limbs (i.e., on all fours?) naked(?)
24. udu-gin7 ka-bi u2 mu-ni-ib-gu7!
 en: Like sheep one ate with grass in its mouth (i.e. ruminated)
25. a surx(AH)-surx(AH)-ra-ke4 i-im-na8-na8-ne
 en: They were drinking water in the ditches(?)
26. u4-ba ki-uludin2 NE#? [...]-re-e-ke4
 en: At that time, at the place of (forming) features of the gods
27. e2-bi du6-ku3-ga {d}[lahar {d}]asznan# x [...] mu#?-un#?-sag12#?-e#?
 en: In their temple on the Holy Mound ... was creating lahar and Ezina
28. esz3 ninda gu7 dingir-re#-[...]
 en: They gathered them into the shrine where the gods ate food
29. he2-gal2 [...]
 en: The abundance of lahar and Ašnan
30. {d}a-nun-na du6-ku3#-[...]
 en: The Anuna gods of the holy mound
31. i-im-gux(NAG)-gux(NAG)-ne# [...]
 en: Were eating(!), but none among them were able to be filled
1. amasz# ku3-ga-ne-ne-a [...]
 en: The milk/cream of their holy sheepfold, the sweet thing (the Anuna gods of the Holy Mound were drinking, but none among them were able to be filled)
2. nam-lu2-lu7 |KAxX|#-bi im#-[...]
 en: Humanity ...
3. u4-ba {d}en-ki-ke4 {d}en-lil2-ra gu3 mu-un#-x-[...]
 en: At that time Enki spoke to Enlil
4. a-a {d}en-lil2 {d}lahar {d}asznan-bi-da-ke4
 en: "Father Enlil, both lahar and Ezina
5. du6-ku3-ga um-ma-da-an-sag12-ga
 en: Because/after(?)... created (them) on the Holy Mound
6. du6-ku3-ga-ta am3-ma-da-ra-ab-e11-de3-en-de3-en
 en: We shall send them down from the Holy Mound”
7. {d}en-ki {d}en-lil2-bi inim ku3-ga-ne-ne-a am3-du11-ga
 en: This is (how) both(?) Enki and Enlil spoke(?) in their holy conversation
8. {d#}lahar {d}asznan-bi du6-ku3-ga im-ma-da-ra-an-e11-de3
 en: They(!) were sending down both lahar and Ezina from the Holy Mound
9. {d#}lahar# amasz#-a-ni# im-ma-ab-ni10-ni10-e
 en: They(!) were enclosing lahar in her sheepfold
10. u2-szim nig2-dagal-la mu#-un-na-ba-e-ne
 en: They were giving vast vegetation to her
11. {d}asznan-ra GAN2 zi mu-un-ga2#-ga2#-e#-ne#
 en: For Ezina they were putting down a fertile field
12. {gesz}apin {gesz}szudul4 erin2#-bi mu-un-na-ba-e#-ne#
 en: They were giving to her the plow, the yoke, and its plow team
13. {d}lahar-e amasz-a gub-ba-ni-ta
 en: After lahar stood in the sheepfold
14. sipa amasz-a hi-li duh-duh-a-ta
 en: After the shepherd furnished her(?) with allure in the sheepfold
15. {d}asznan ab-sin2-na gub-ba-ni-ta
 en: After Ezina stood in the furrow
16. ki-sikil sig7-ga hi-li gur3-ru-am3
 en: She was a beautiful/verdant young woman bearing allure
17. GAN2-ne-ta sag zi il2-la-ni
 en: (After) she raised her fertile head in the field
18. he2-gal2 an-na-ta de2-de2-a-ni
 en: After she was poured upon by the abundance of heaven(?)
19. {d}lahar {d}asznan#-bi pa e3 mu-un#-na-ak-esz
 en: Both lahar and Ezina appeared
20. an-na he2-gal2 mu-un-ne-gal2
 en: In heaven abundance was there for them(?)
21. kalam-ma zi-sza3#-gal2 mu-un-ne-gal2
 en: In the land life force was there for them(?)
22. me dingir-re-e#-ne# si im-sa2-sa2-e-ne
 en: They were properly executing the me of the gods
23. erimx(|E2xA|)! kalam-ma-ka nig2# mu-ni-ib-lu-lu
 en: (They were making?) things proliferate in the storehouse(!?) of the land
24. e2-kur-re sahar# si us2-sa-a-ba
 en: Into the prison, founded(!?) (in?) the dust
25. u3-mu-un-sun5-esz he2-gal2 mu-un-ne-gal2
 en: After they entered, abundance was there for them
26. min3-na-ne-ne ki giri3-ne-ne bi2-in-gub-bu-usz-a
 en: The two of them (lit. “their two"), where they set their feet
27. dugud-bi e2#-e nig2 tah-e-me-esz
 en: They are the ones who increase things in the house “heavily”
28. ki gub si!? sa2-me-esz ki tusz me-te-gal2-me-esz
 en: Where they stand, they are correct(?), where they sit, they are appropriate
29. sza3 an-na# sza3 {d}en-lil2-la2-ke4 ba-sa6-ge-me-esz
 en: They are ones that are pleasant in(?) the heart of An and the heart of Enlil
30. gesztin nig2-du10 i-im-na8-na8-e-ne
 en: The were drinking sweet/intoxicating wine
31. kasz nig2-du10 i-im-du10-du10-ge-e-ne
 en: They were “making (themselves) sweet” (i.e., getting drunk) with sweet/intoxicating beer
32. gesztin nig2-du10 u3-mu-un-nag-esz-a-ta
 en: After they drank sweet/intoxicating wine
  single ruling
1. im-gi-da {disz}dam!-qi2!-i3-li2-szu {iti}ab-e3 u4 1(u) 4(disz)-kam
 en: Single-column tablet of Damqi-ilišu, month of Abe, 14th day
2. ($ blank space $) 1(disz)! szu-szi 2(disz)
 en: (Total:) 62(!) lines

Consult previous versions and their differences
Consult sign list of Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)
Consult word list of Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)

  • Artifact type: Tablet
  • Material: Clay
  • Measurements (mm):
  • Weight:
  • Artifact Preservation:
  • Condition Description:
  • Join Information:
  • Seal no.:
  • Seal information:
  • Artifact comments:

  • Genre(s): Literary (ETCSL 5.03.02 Debate between Grain and Sheep (witness))
  • Language(s): Sumerian

  • history: UET 6, 0033

    [Gadd1963] Gadd, Cyril J., and Aaron Shaffer. 1963, 1966.

  • Composite No.:
  • Museum No.: BM —
  • Accession No.:

  • Provenience: Ur (mod. Tell Muqayyar)
  • Elevation:
  • Stratigraphic Level:
  • Excavation No: U —
  • Findspot Square:
  • Findspot Comments:

Created Creator Type Authors Project Reviewer Status Action
2023-06-15 at 20:34:30 Rattenborg, Rune Artifact Rattenborg, Rune Geomapping Landscapes of Writing Rattenborg, Rune approved View
2019-06-11 at 21:45:38 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2019-05-29 at 21:01:58 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2017-12-28 at 08:30:20 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2015-05-05 at 09:43:20 CDLI Atf CDLI CDLI approved View
2015-02-26 at 09:00:09 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2015-01-14 at 16:47:38 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2015-01-14 at 16:46:56 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2006-11-02 at 00:00:00 CDLI Artifact Foxvog, Daniel A.; Guerra, Dylan; Peterson, Jeremiah; Veldhuis, Niek; Wolfe, Jared N. CDLI approved View

This artifact is a witness to the following composite(s):

Composite Score
CDLI Literary 000761 (Debate between Grain and Sheep) composite (P472758) View the score

General Notes: -
CDLI Notes: -
Cite this Artifact
“CDLI Literary 000761, Ex. 038 Artifact Entry.” (2006) 2023. Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). June 15, 2023.
CDLI Literary 000761, ex. 038 artifact entry (No. P346118). (2023, June 15). Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). (Original work published 2006)
CDLI Literary 000761, ex. 038 artifact entry (2023) Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). Available at: (Accessed: July 12, 2024).
	note = {[Online; accessed 2024-07-12]},
	year = {2023},
	month = {jun 15},
	title = {CDLI {Literary} 000761, ex. 038 artifact entry},
	url = {},
	howpublished = {},

DA  - 2023/6/15/
PY  - 2023
ID  - P346118
LB  - CDLI:P346118
M1  - 2024/7/12/
TI  - CDLI Literary 000761, ex. 038 artifact entry
UR  -
ER  - 
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