CDLI Literary 000778, ex. 014 (P346111)

Literary tablet excavated in Ur (mod. Tell Muqayyar), dated to the Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC) period and now kept in British Museum, London, UK

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Text / annotations

Text data


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Chemical Data

Seal Chemistry


Museum Collection(s)

British Museum, London, UK

Museum Number

BM —


Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)


Ur (mod. Tell Muqayyar)

Artifact Type




Genre / Subgenre(s)

Literary (ETCSL 5.05.04 Song of Hoe ('Decad no. 03') (witness))






1. addax(|BAD.LU2|)# {gesz}al-e ki-ta tum-ma-am3
 en: The hoe is the one that exhumes the corpse(?) from the ground
2. sul# idim an-na szesz banda3{+da} {d}nergal-ka
 en: The youth, the important one(?) of heaven/An, he is the younger brother of Nergal
3. ur#-sag {d}gilgames3-e {gesz}al-e sa-par4-am3
 en: Hero Gilgamesh, (for him?) the hoe is a sabar net
4. dumu {d}nin-sumun2-ka {gesz}gisal-e dub-sag-am3
 en: He who is the son of Ninsumun, (for him?) the oar is first(?)
5. {gesz}al-lub i7-da kingal-am3
 en: The allub tool is the kingal official on/in the river
6. ka2#? agrun-na-ka {gesz}al-e sukkal-am3
 en: At the door(?) of the agrun chamber/building, the hoe is the vizier
7. hul#-gal2 u4-nu2-a dumu {gesz}al-me-esz
 en: Evildoers are children of the hoe during the waning moon(?)
8. [...] du11-ga-ta an-ta u3-tu-de3-AN
 en: By means of/in(?) the regular day(?) they(!?) are being born apart from heaven(?)
9. [... al]-ti#-ri2-gu7{muszen} dingir-ra
 en: ...
  cf. Veldhuis CM 22, 218; Michalowski, Fs Owen 198
10. [... {gesz}al]-lub#?-am3 gesz-gi ur-ra-am3#
 en: Towards the earth it is the allub tool, (in) the reedbed it is a dog
11. [...] uszumgal#-am3#
 en: In the thicket it is an ušumgal creature
12. [...]-al-am3
 en: At the site of battle it is ... ax
13. [...] {gesz#?}al-lu5-hab2-ba
 en: At the site of the fortification, it is an alluhab net(!?)
14. [...] {gesz}ma-al-tum-ma
 en: At the place of the table, it is a bowl
15. [...] {gesz}ma-a-a-al-tum{ki?}
 en: At the site of a chariot, it is a mayaltum wagon(!?)
16. [...] {gesz#}ar-ga-bi2-lu5
 en: In the donkey stable, it is an argibil structure
17. [...]-bi du10-ga-am3 hur-sag-ga2 mu-un-gal2?
 en: It is the hoe, its good name is present in(?) the mountain range
18. [...] {gesz}al-la-nu-um-ma
 en: The tree of the mountain range is the oak tree
19. [...] {gesz#}ar-ga-nu-um-ma
 en: The aromatic of the mountain range is (of the) arganum tree
20. [...] {na4#}sal!-hub2# [...]
 en: The stone of the mountain range is algameš stone
1. [...]-lum#-ma {gesz}al# lam-lam-ma
 en: The hoe makes ... fructify, the hoe make ... flourish
2. [...]-ga#-am3 {gesz}al sa-par4-am3
 en: The hoe makes barley good(?), the hoe is (used with?) the sabar net
3. [...] u3#-szub-ba al sag gal2-la-am3#
 en: The hoe is (used with?) the brick-mold, the hoe set the head (in it)(?)
4. [...] a2# nam#-gurusz-a-ka
 en: The hoe is the strength of youth
5. [...] nig2# uru17{ki} du3-du3-de3
 en: The hoe and the earth-carrying basket are those that are to build the city
6. [...]-du3#-e e2 zi al#-[ga2]-ga2
 en: The true temple is being built, the true temple is being established/maintained
7. [...] szu# dagal-la#-e-de3-en
 en: You are to broaden the fertile field(?)
8. [...]-bi#-ir bala-e
 en: The field that is revolting against its master
9. [...]-ir gu2 nu#-gar-ra-am3#
 en: The field that does not submit to its master
10. [...]-bi#-ir gu2 mu-un-na-ab-ga2#-ga2#
 en: The hoe makes it submit to its master
11. [...]-hul-ba sag-ba dub2-dub2-ba
 en: The smiter of the “evil rushes”
12. [...]-re#? pa#-ba mu-un-zi-re
 en: It tears it out at its roots, it breaks(?) at its branches
13. [... {u2}]hirim#? hu#!?-ri2#?-in#?-na#? szu-sze3 al#-ga2#-ga2#
 en: The hoe was setting the hirim grass at the hand
14. [...] nam# tar-ra a-a# [{d}]en#-lil2-kam#!?
 en: The hoe, the wood(en implement) decreed a destiny by father Enlil
15. {gesz}al-e <za3>-mi2 du11-ga {d}nisaba za3#-mi2
 en: Hoe, praise! Nisaba, praise!
  double ruling
  blank space

Consult previous versions and their differences
Consult sign list of Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)
Consult word list of Old Babylonian (ca. 1900-1600 BC)

  • Artifact type: Tablet
  • Material: Clay
  • Measurements (mm):
  • Weight:
  • Artifact Preservation:
  • Condition Description:
  • Join Information:
  • Seal no.:
  • Seal information:
  • Artifact comments:

  • Genre(s): Literary (ETCSL 5.05.04 Song of Hoe ('Decad no. 03') (witness))
  • Language(s): Sumerian

  • history: UET 6, 0026b

    [Gadd1963] Gadd, Cyril J., and Aaron Shaffer. 1963, 1966.

  • Composite No.:
  • Museum No.: BM —
  • Accession No.:

  • Provenience: Ur (mod. Tell Muqayyar)
  • Elevation:
  • Stratigraphic Level:
  • Excavation No: U 07804 + U 07804.c
  • Findspot Square:
  • Findspot Comments:

Created Creator Type Authors Project Reviewer Status Action
2023-06-15 at 20:34:30 Rattenborg, Rune Artifact Rattenborg, Rune Geomapping Landscapes of Writing Rattenborg, Rune approved View
2019-06-12 at 09:16:44 Englund, Robert K. Atf Englund, Robert K. CDLI approved View
2019-06-01 at 14:34:09 Englund, Robert K. Atf Peterson, Jeremiah CDLI approved View
2019-05-29 at 21:02:00 Englund, Robert K. Atf Peterson, Jeremiah CDLI approved View
2006-11-02 at 00:00:00 CDLI Artifact Foxvog, Daniel A.; Guerra, Dylan; Peterson, Jeremiah; Veldhuis, Niek; Wolfe, Jared N. CDLI approved View

This artifact is a witness to the following composite(s):

Composite Score
CDLI Literary 000778 (Song of Hoe) composite (P478966) View the score

General Notes: -
CDLI Notes: -
Cite this Artifact
“CDLI Literary 000778, Ex. 014 Artifact Entry.” (2006) 2023. Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). June 15, 2023.
CDLI Literary 000778, ex. 014 artifact entry (No. P346111). (2023, June 15). Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). (Original work published 2006)
CDLI Literary 000778, ex. 014 artifact entry (2023) Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI). Available at: (Accessed: July 19, 2024).
	note = {[Online; accessed 2024-07-19]},
	year = {2023},
	month = {jun 15},
	title = {CDLI {Literary} 000778, ex. 014 artifact entry},
	url = {},
	howpublished = {},

DA  - 2023/6/15/
PY  - 2023
ID  - P346111
LB  - CDLI:P346111
M1  - 2024/7/19/
TI  - CDLI Literary 000778, ex. 014 artifact entry
UR  -
ER  - 
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